Benchmark dataset for analysis of cyber-attacks to an indoor real time localization system for autonomous robots

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This data report summarizes a benchmark dataset which can be used to analyze cyber-attacks to an indoor real time localization system for autonomous robots. Data have been gathered in an indoor mock-up apartment, shown in Fig 2 , located at the Robotics Lab of the University of León (Spain). An autonomous robot, called Karen and shown in Fig 1, with an on-board Real Time Location System (RTLS) was used to gather the data.

Further information can be found at: Guerrero-Higueras, Á. M., DeCastro-García, N., Rodríguez-Lera, F. J., & Matellán, V. (2017). Empirical analysis of cyber-attacks to an indoor real time localization system for autonomous robots. Computers & Security, 70, 422-435.


Data gathered by Karen robot include:

  • Karen location estimates provided by a commercial RTLS, called KIO.

Additional information about Karen and the devices/packages used to get data is given below.

Karen robot

Fig. 1 shows the autonomous robot Karen, used in the experiments. Karen is a mobile manipulator built by the Robotics Group of the Universidad de León (Spain). It has two arms with 7 degrees of freedom, 3 fingers each, and a mobile base. The control of the robot is based on the Robot Operating System (ROS) framework.

Fig. 1: Karen and KIO RTLS: a beacon (1), and tag on the robot (2).


KIO RTLS commercial solution by Eliko has been used to provide people location at the study area. Fig 1 shows a KIO beacon (1), and a KIO tag on the robot (2).

Recording procedure

Three different distributions of the KIO beacons were defined. Fig. 2 presents the experimental area map and shows the location of the beacons for the three cases. The red dots show the placement of the six beacons for Distribution #1, blue dots show the placement of the six beacons for Distribution #2, and green dots show the placement of the six beacons for Distribution #3. 12 checkpoints were determined in the experimental area. Karen was placed in all of them and the location estimates gathered by the tag were recorded for later analysis. Checkpoint locations are shown as black rounded numbered points in Fig. 2. There are nine checkpoints inside the mock up apartment to obtain location estimates in all rooms. Three other checkpoints are in the corridor for obtaining location estimates outside the mock up apartment.

Fig. 2: Robotics mobile lab plane. Red dots indicate beacons for Distribution #1, blue dots for Distribution #2 and green dots for Distribution #3. Black rounded numbered dots indicate checkpoints.

cyber-attacks were performed on the beacons of KIO RTLS used by Karen robot in order to estimate its location. Two types of attacks were performed. The first one (A1i) simulated three DoS attacks, by interfering with the signal emitted by beacons 411A, 501C, and 408A, thus making it impossible for the tag to obtain distances from them. The DoS attack on beacon 411A is labeled A1a, the one on 501C, A1b, and the one on 501C, A1c. The second type of attack (A2j) carried out four Spoofing attacks, changing the signal emitted by beacons 411A and 501C introducing either a fixed and a variable error, making the tag to calculate a wrong location. Spoofing attacks over the beacon 411A with either a fixed and variable error are labelled A2a and A2b respectively. The ones over 501C with either a fixed and variable error are labelled A2c and A2d respectively.


Differents versions of the dataset are enumerated below.


Distribution 1 (96 files)

  1. kio-point-01-moving411a_2016-07-14-10-55-04.bag
  2. kio-point-01-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-14-10-54-11.bag
  3. kio-point-01-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-14-10-53-13.bag
  4. kio-point-01-moving501c_2016-07-14-10-51-35.bag
  5. kio-point-01-without408a_2016-07-14-10-49-27.bag
  6. kio-point-01-without411a_2016-07-14-10-47-06.bag
  7. kio-point-01-without501c_2016-07-14-10-48-24.bag
  8. kio-point-01_2016-07-14-10-44-29.bag
  9. kio-point-02-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-14-10-57-46.bag
  10. kio-point-02-moving411a_2016-07-14-10-56-38.bag
  11. kio-point-02-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-01-47.bag
  12. kio-point-02-moving501c_2016-07-14-11-02-40.bag
  13. kio-point-02-without408a_2016-07-14-11-12-24.bag
  14. kio-point-02-without411a_2016-07-14-10-59-11.bag
  15. kio-point-02-without501c_2016-07-14-11-00-28.bag
  16. kio-point-02_2016-07-14-11-35-29.bag
  17. kio-point-03-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-06-22.bag
  18. kio-point-03-moving411a_2016-07-14-11-07-16.bag
  19. kio-point-03-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-05-01.bag
  20. kio-point-03-moving501c_2016-07-14-11-04-02.bag
  21. kio-point-03-without408a_2016-07-14-11-11-06.bag
  22. kio-point-03-without411a_2016-07-14-11-08-26.bag
  23. kio-point-03-without501c_2016-07-14-11-09-43.bag
  24. kio-point-03_2016-07-14-11-34-42.bag
  25. kio-point-04-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-21-07.bag
  26. kio-point-04-moving411a_2016-07-14-11-21-58.bag
  27. kio-point-04-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-20-03.bag
  28. kio-point-04-moving501c_2016-07-14-11-18-59.bag
  29. kio-point-04-without408a_2016-07-14-11-14-10.bag
  30. kio-point-04-without411a_2016-07-14-11-16-19.bag
  31. kio-point-04-without501c_2016-07-14-11-17-37.bag
  32. kio-point-04_2016-07-14-11-33-58.bag
  33. kio-point-05-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-25-33.bag
  34. kio-point-05-moving411a_2016-07-14-11-24-33.bag
  35. kio-point-05-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-26-34.bag
  36. kio-point-05-moving501c_2016-07-14-11-27-26.bag
  37. kio-point-05-without408a_2016-07-14-11-31-19.bag
  38. kio-point-05-without411a_2016-07-14-11-29-41.bag
  39. kio-point-05-without501c_2016-07-14-11-28-32.bag
  40. kio-point-05_2016-07-14-11-33-11.bag
  41. kio-point-06-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-44-06.bag
  42. kio-point-06-moving411a_2016-07-14-11-44-59.bag
  43. kio-point-06-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-14-11-43-01.bag
  44. kio-point-06-moving501c_2016-07-14-11-42-04.bag
  45. kio-point-06-without408a_2016-07-14-11-39-19.bag
  46. kio-point-06-without411a_2016-07-14-11-37-58.bag
  47. kio-point-06-without501c_2016-07-14-11-40-49.bag
  48. kio-point-06_2016-07-14-11-36-58.bag
  49. kio-point-07-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-15-10-27-02.bag
  50. kio-point-07-moving411a_2016-07-15-10-24-57.bag
  51. kio-point-07-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-15-10-28-10.bag
  52. kio-point-07-moving501c_2016-07-15-10-29-01.bag
  53. kio-point-07-without408a_2016-07-15-10-22-45.bag
  54. kio-point-07-without411A_2016-07-15-10-17-59.bag
  55. kio-point-07-without501c_2016-07-15-10-20-27.bag
  56. kio-point-07_2016-07-15-10-16-24.bag
  57. kio-point-08-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-15-10-52-00.bag
  58. kio-point-08-moving411a_2016-07-15-10-51-18.bag
  59. kio-point-08-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-15-10-43-31.bag
  60. kio-point-08-moving501c_2016-07-15-10-44-19.bag
  61. kio-point-08-without408a_2016-07-15-10-49-32.bag
  62. kio-point-08-without411a_2016-07-15-10-48-21.bag
  63. kio-point-08-without501c_2016-07-15-10-46-32.bag
  64. kio-point-08_2016-07-15-10-41-05.bag
  65. kio-point-09-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-15-10-32-43.bag
  66. kio-point-09-moving411a_2016-07-15-10-33-32.bag
  67. kio-point-09-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-15-10-31-50.bag
  68. kio-point-09-moving501c_2016-07-15-10-30-26.bag
  69. kio-point-09-without408a_2016-07-15-10-38-23.bag
  70. kio-point-09-without411a_2016-07-15-10-35-35.bag
  71. kio-point-09-without501c_2016-07-15-10-36-50.bag
  72. kio-point-09_2016-07-15-10-39-52.bag
  73. kio-point-10-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-15-12-26-12.bag
  74. kio-point-10-moving411a_2016-07-15-12-24-51.bag
  75. kio-point-10-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-15-12-28-02.bag
  76. kio-point-10-moving501c_2016-07-15-12-23-10.bag
  77. kio-point-10-without408a_2016-07-15-12-21-13.bag
  78. kio-point-10-without411a_2016-07-15-12-19-02.bag
  79. kio-point-10-without501c_2016-07-15-12-20-12.bag
  80. kio-point-10_2016-07-15-12-22-26.bag
  81. kio-point-11-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-15-13-05-05.bag
  82. kio-point-11-moving411a_2016-07-15-13-04-04.bag
  83. kio-point-11-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-15-13-06-01.bag
  84. kio-point-11-moving501c_2016-07-15-13-06-54.bag
  85. kio-point-11-without408a_2016-07-15-13-00-25.bag
  86. kio-point-11-without411a_2016-07-15-13-01-37.bag
  87. kio-point-11-without501c_2016-07-15-13-02-47.bag
  88. kio-point-11_2016-07-15-12-59-31.bag
  89. kio-point-12-moving411a-Randomly_2016-07-15-11-44-32.bag
  90. kio-point-12-moving411a_2016-07-15-11-43-14.bag
  91. kio-point-12-moving501c-Randomly_2016-07-15-11-41-26.bag
  92. kio-point-12-moving501c_2016-07-15-11-42-20.bag
  93. kio-point-12-without408a_2016-07-15-11-47-52.bag
  94. kio-point-12-without411a_2016-07-15-11-49-04.bag
  95. kio-point-12-without501c_2016-07-15-11-46-48.bag
  96. kio-point-12_2016-07-15-11-45-52.bag

Distribution 2

Distribution 3